‘SECRETS’ over Patrick ‘Guiseppe’ Conlon’s pub bomb prison death

Patrick “Guiseppe” Conlon already had tuberculosis when he was jailed on 4th March 1976.

The government drew up a secret plan to release a man wrongly convicted over IRA bombs in Guildford, papers seen by the BBC reveal.

Belfast man Patrick “Guiseppe” Conlon was jailed with his son and nine others after two explosions in Guildford in 1974, and died of tuberculosis in 1980.

But had he recovered, he would have been released from jail, papers show.

His family said the attempt to hide the details was “horrific”. The government declined to comment to the BBC.

Mr Conlon was one of the Maguire Seven, convicted on explosives charges, and his son Gerry was one of the Guildford Four, jailed for murder after the pub bombings killed five and injured 65.

All eventually had their convictions quashed after what became known as one of Britain’s biggest miscarriages of justice, and the story told in the film In The Name of the Father, starring Daniel Day-Lewis and Pete Postlethwaite.

Mr Conlon died four years into his 12-year prison term.

it was reported by the BBC Mr Conlon’s health became so poor in December 1979 he was taken to hospital, but just over a week later was returned to jail.

He was again moved from prison to hospital as his health worsened and died on 23 January 1980, the same day Home Secretary William Whitelaw – later Lord Whitelaw – decided to grant him parole.

Guildford Four man’s ‘living hell’ revealed
Pub bombing files ‘show fresh evidence’
‘End secrecy’ over IRA pub bombings
The BBC has seen the private papers of his predecessor Merlyn Rees – later Lord Rees – including some files that remain closed to the general public.

One file contained a letter from Lord Whitelaw to Cardinal Basil Hume, who had campaigned on behalf of the 11.

Writing the day after Mr Conlon died aged 56, four years into his 12-year prison term, he said: “Although it will be of no comfort to his family I thought you should know in confidence that I had in fact already come to the conclusion that should Mr Conlon recover sufficiently to be discharged from hospital, it would not be right to return him to prison.”

Home Secretary William Whitelaw wrote to Cardinal Hume on 24th January 1980, the day after Mr Conlon died.

Further letters revealed how the decision was leaked to the press after the government tried to keep it private.

On 3rd March 1980, Mr Whitelaw acknowledged there had been a leak to the press.

Mr Conlon’s granddaughter Sarah McIlhone said her mother, Ann McKernan, was too ill to comment, but would demand the truth needed to be told.

“This is horrific. My granddad and my uncle Gerry were innocent men,” Ms McIlhone said.

“The whole family suffered awful pain and heartache because of what the British government have done. We don’t know what to say.”

‘Lasting heartache’

Gerry Conlon continued to blame himself for his father’s death after his release, Ann McKernan (right).

Patrick Conlon was arrested after his son Gerry’s false confessions, which he alleged were made as a result of police brutality.

In 2016, after the BBC accessed files on the case, Ann McKernan described how her brother was left feeling lasting guilt over what had happened to their father.

“Nobody’s seen his tears, but I’ve seen his tears,” she said.

“He blamed himself for my father’s death, and he cried to me, and I couldn’t take that heartache away.”

Christopher Stanley, from KRW Law which represents the Conlon family, said: “This sad revelation confirms again the demand for truth and justice regarding both the Guildford pub bombings and the wrongful conviction of the Guildford Four.”

He has successfully applied to the Surrey Coroner for a fresh hearing – a pre-inquest review – into the bombings.

Richard O’Rawe, a former Irish republican prisoner who grew up with Gerry Conlon in Belfast, said: “We thought we were beyond shock, we are not.

“The British government should be thoroughly ashamed of themselves in the way they have treated the Conlon family.”

On 24th June 1976, the Home Office told the NI Civil Rights Association, who had raised concerns with Home Secretary Roy Jenkins that Mr Conlon’s health was “satisfactory”,
A chronology reffered to a decision on 24th April 1979 that Mr Conlon was not eligible for early release on medical grounds.

Human rights lawyer Alastair Logan, who previously represented the Conlons, believes the secrecy suggests the government was “covering themselves”, and said the important matter was what it knew about Mr Conlon’s condition.

“Their decision to retain him in prison must have been made with the knowledge that it was highly likely he would die in prison – and he did,” he said.

Mr Logan said when Mr Conlon was in Wakefield Prison, he believed his condition was chronic and would inevitably lead to his death, and by the time he reached Wormwood Scrubs it was much worse.

He said arrangements were not even made to give Mr Conlon meals when he could not make it down the stairs from the third floor of Wakefield Prison to the ground floor to eat.

Fellow prisoners saved up their meagre wages to buy him the food supplement Complan, he added.

At the trial, Mr Justice Donaldson – Later Lord Donaldson – said in court that Mr Conlon was receiving treatment in custody.

The government had said in 1976 that Mr Conlon’s health was “satisfactory” and in April 1979 said medical reports deemed him fit to remain in jail.

Inquest reports in 1980 said the Prison Service tried to treat Mr Conlon several times for a chest illness, but he died of natural causes from heart failure caused by his condition.

The family always claimed Mr Conlon was only given non-prescription cough medicine.

On 26th March 1979, Cardinal Hume told Merlyn Rees Mr Conlon would not live long enough to complete his sentence.
On 3rd April 1979, Cardinal Hume pleaded with the Home Office minister Brynmor John MP not to let Mr Conlon die in prison.

Descriptions over Mr Conlon’s condition have varied over the years to include TB, lung cancer and emphysema. Documents in the files attributed his death to TB.

Treatment given now for TB involves taking antibiotics for several months.

The NHS website states: “With treatment, TB can almost always be cured.”

The BBC has asked to see any of Mr Conlon’s medical reports from 1979 that may still exist.

With many thanks to: BBCNI for the origional story.

Guildford Four’s Armstrong lays bare experience of prison and it’s aftermath.

ONE of the Guildford Four has described his struggles following his release from prison – and how he has come out the other side. Wrongly convicted and imprisoned for 15 years, Paddy Armstrong was one of four people (known as the Guildford Four), jailed for the Guildford pub bombings in England in 1975.

Almost 30 years after his release, the Belfast-born man has relieved his ordeal in a book, Life After Life, saying “we can’t let people forget, because there are still injustices in the world today”. Mr Armstrong said the book, ghostwritten by Journalist Mary-Elaine Tynan, “lays bare the experiences of those years and their aftermath”. “It took a year and a half to get this out of me, but I’m glad I’ve done It,” he told The Irish News. “My son and daughter had begun asking questions about what happened to me and I found it difficult to answer. “I live for my family and I want people to see I’ve come out the other side – that there is a life after life.”

Mr Armstrong was jailed for life alongside Gerry Conlon, Paul Hill and Carole Richardson in what was widely regarded as one of the UK’s worst miscarriages of justice.

I needed to do it for my children and their generation – people who don’t know our story. Because their are still injustices in the world today. – Paddy Armstrong.

Their convictions for murdering five people in two IRA pub bombings in 1974 were finally quashed by the Court of Appeal in 1989. Recalling a dark period of his life, Mr Armstrong said: “I didn’t have a clue what was going on when I was arrested.

“They asked me the same questions over and over again. One of the police said: “We know you didn’t do it but we’re going to do you for it”. When we were told we would serve 35 years. I thought I’d never see the outside world again. “But that time came and when I got out I lived with my solicitor Alistair Logan for nine months – he saved me as I didn’t know anything about the outside. I remember the first night I stayed in his house I ended up putting the mattress onto the floor as I wasn’t used to sleeping on a bed.

“That following morning, Alistair said to me: ‘I heard you moving about a lot in your room’ and I said I still had in my head the warders were coming into my cell. “He got two doctors to treat me – ones that help soldiers who came from war, and I think that helped get my head together. They helped me adjust to life outside again. “It was very hard and there were times I wanted to be back in prison because at least I knew the structure there.”

“Asked if his ordeal had made him bitter, Mr Armstrong said: “I’ve no bitterness at all, I’m not that type of guy. “I’m angry with the police. I always get asked ‘you must hate so many people’ but what’s the point?” On why he was publishing his memoirs now, he said: “I didn’t just want the book to be about my time in prison but also about my life since I got out, and how difficult it was in those early days. 

“I needed to do it for my children and the people of their generation – people who don’t know our story. Gerry Conlon and Carole Richardson are gone now, but I’m still here. And so is Paul Hill. “And we can’t let people forget because there are still injustices in the world today.” Life After Life, A Guildford Four memoir will be launched at Easons in Belfast’s Donegal Place at 6.30pm on Thursday night April 13th 2017.
#JFTC2 #JusticeForTheCraigavonTwo


With many thanks to: Suzanne McGonagle, The Irish News.

Today in Irish History: 19th October 1989 – After serving 15-years in an English prison, “The Guildford Four”: Geard ‘Gerry’ Conlon, Patrick ‘Paddy’ Armstrong, Carole Richardson and Paul Hill are released in what is considered to be one of the biggest-ever miscarriages of justice in Britain’s history.

Paul Hill is taken to a Belfast prison where he was serving time for murder; he was also expected to be released.https://m.youtube.com/watch?feature=youtu.be&v=moDZUdmXT1E

With many thanks to:
http:// https://m.facebook.com/story.php?story_fbid=841832689264527&id=352615514852916#!/StairnahEireann

Gerry Conlon stormed out of the Old Bailey in London after his release, pictured with his sisters Birdie and Ann.


Paul Hill, speaking in 1994 after his conviction for the murder of a British soldier in Belfast was quashed

Give Gerry Conlon’s Facebook page a like: Click on the link below….

Served 15-years-in-prison for something he didn’t do.
(Part 1)
http:// https://m.youtube.com/#/watch?v=SOtIccHr8SE
(Part 2)
http:// https://m.youtube.com/#/watch?v=pV5kFR-17_g
(Part 3)
http:// https://m.youtube.com/#/watch?v=qGEWoHDaeak

Gerry Conlon and Paddy Hill at the Univerisity of Limerick, School of Law.

http:// https://m.youtube.com/#/watch?v=hgVOcEn3N3A

Gerry Conlon Dies in West Belfast (21.6.2014)

The coffin of Gerry Conlon is carried by, among others, Guilford Four member Paddy Armstrong (front right), and Birmingham Six member Paddy Hill (front left).

http:// https://m.youtube.com/#/watch?v=ahczeAn5dUU

A post-release of Guildford Four member Carole Richardson, who died in obscurity in 2012.


Gerry Conlan : ” The government knew we were being tortured “.


As one of the Guildford Four, Gerry Conlon spent 15 years in prison for an IRA campaign he knew nothing about. More than 20 years later he is still fighting for justice.

There are moments when I lose sight of Gerry Conlon through the fog of countless cigarettes smoked during our four-hour interview. He is in Liverpool to campaign for other victims of miscarriages of justice, and we meet in a rented apartment in the city’s Chinatown. We are joined periodically by others who are there to support the cause. Each adds views on the various injustices they have suffered and each contributes to the cloud of thick smoke filling the room.

In 1974, the then 20-year-old Belfast-born Conlon was arrested over the IRA pub bombings in Guildford which killed five people. He had never been to Guildford. But along with the three other members of the group that became known as the Guildford Four, Conlon was sentenced to life in prison on the basis of false confessions made after days of mistreatment by Surrey police.


Maguire Seven: fighting for freedom from wrongful conviction

Fleeing torture in Iran

A painful awakening

Conlon’s father, Giuseppe, was also imprisoned as part of a group known as the Maguire Seven. The basis of their convictions was forensic evidence – later discredited – which the prosecution claimed proved they had handled explosives used in the bombings. The group, including Patrick Maguire who was just 13 when he was arrested, were sentenced to between four and 14 years in prison.

In 1989 the Court of Appeal quashed the convictions of the Guildford Four when it was found that crucial alibi evidence – proving Conlon could not have done the bombings – had not been shown to the defence. There was also evidence of police collusion on fabricating the statements – the only evidence produced against them at the original trial. The Maguire Seven later had their convictions overturned, but by this time they had all served their sentences and been released, except Giuseppe Conlon who, already in failing health when he was arrested, died after five years in prison.

The Gerry Conlon that stood outside the High Court in London after his release was a triumphant and charismatic figure. He told massed press and supporters that he was an innocent man who had spent 15 years in prison for a crime he didn’t commit. He vowed to clear his late father’s name and fight for the release of others, like the Birmingham Six and the Bridgwater Three, who had been wrongly convicted.

This is the Conlon that played repeatedly on the news bulletins. And this is the man portrayed by Daniel Day-Lewis as the star of In the Name Of the Father, the partly fictionalised 1993 film based on Conlon’s autobiography. But Conlon’s feelings of triumph were short-lived and he was far from ready for the outside world.

“If you spend a few weeks in the Big Brother house, you get counselling when you leave to prepare you for life outside. I spent 15 years being moved from one terrible prison to the next, being treated like I was lower than the worst kind of paedophile. When I got released I was given £34.90 and told to go.”

When long-term prisoners come up for release, they are slowly reintroduced to the outside world, with supervised day releases, then weekend releases. When wrongful convictions are quashed, prisoners leave straight away, with no preparation for how to cope with life on the outside.

Conlon was initially on a high after his release. He put everything into making good his pledge to get the convictions of the Birmingham Six overturned. After months of frantic campaigning, he went back to his mother’s house in Belfast to take a break when suddenly the impact of what he had been through hit him.

“I came out of the bathroom and my father, who’d died years earlier, was sitting on the settee in prison pyjamas and a prison dressing gown. Since then I haven’t been able to get the terrible images out of my head.

“I never had one suicidal thought in prison. Now I have them all the time. I haven’t been able to have a relationship, I’ve turned to alcohol and drugs, it’s a constant waking nightmare.”

More than twenty years after his release, the man sitting in front of me is no less eloquent and determined than the angry 35-year old who stood outside court, but his mind has never escaped from prison. He speaks lyrically, without pause, recalling full names, exact dates and locations of the grim landmarks of his ordeal. But at every turn he is visibly haunted by the terrible memories that won’t stay in the past and the injustices which continue in the present.

Conlon believes that because their case caused such political embarrassment, there was what he calls a “whispering campaign” around Westminster after their release. That although their conviction was quashed, the authorities wanted people to think they were freed on a technicality, but may actually have been guilty.

He is angry that nobody was ever punished for their wrongful imprisonment. He is also convinced that it was not just the police that lied to get them convicted. He believes the conspiracy to jail innocent people went right to the top.

“The Government knew, right from the start, that we were innocent. They knew we had nothing to do with the IRA, but they didn’t care. That’s why they have a 75-year immunity order on our case. Because they want all the people involved to be dead before they release our files.”

Because this cloud of suspicion was allowed to remain, Conlon was denied access to psychiatric treatment. It was not until 2007 that he began getting regular therapy, and even then only one hour a week. This has helped, but is far too little, coming far too late, for someone who suffered trauma on the level that he did.

“I have what they call a disassociation problem: something comes in to my head and I’m back in prison. I’m back in Wakefield, being tortured… hands behind my back, gun in my mouth, it doesn’t go away.

“The reason I took drugs and alcohol was because I couldn’t deal with what my mind was projecting. To get some relief from the nightmares, day and night.

“But then the nightmares started breaking through with a sledge hammer, and once that happened it was a question of giving up the drugs and fighting to get professional help.”

The effects of his wrongful conviction went far beyond Conlon and the others who were wrongfully convicted. Prison visits were supervised and any personal details discussed would be spread around by mischievous warders, so they stuck to discussing pleasantries.

“I’d spent months in solitary, in the dark. I’d been beaten, had people defecating in my food, putting glass in my food. I’d seen people murdered. Yet I had to tell my family they were treating me well.

“When you come out you find the relationship with your family during your time inside was built on falsehoods. I didn’t know that my mother and my sisters were being strip searched and abused when they came to see me. You can’t calculate the devastating effect it has on your family.”

As we are speaking Conlon sees a news report on the TV screen behind me about the treatment of the former Guantánamo Bay detainee Binyan Mohamed.

“Nothing has changed. The Government knew we were being tortured in the 1970s. When I hear about Binyam Mohamed it all comes back. My mind flashes back to the beatings, the threats and the mental cruelty I suffered at the hands of the police.”

Conlon has become frustrated by the lack of political will to help victims of miscarriages of justice. The Miscarriages of Justice Organisation (Mojo) was formed by Paddy Hill after he and other members of the Birmingham Six had their convictions quashed in 1991. Mojo is campaigning to have a trauma centre set up dedicated to helping miscarriage of justice victims after they leave prison. They get sympathetic noises from politicians but little action.

In 1997, Conlon was given half a million pounds in compensation. Giving money to victims of miscarriages of justice is likened by Conlon to giving them a “bottle of whisky and a revolver”.

“They may as well say: ‘here’s the money, now go and kill yourself.’

“They gave me £546,000 – for taking me, torturing me and framing me; taking my father, torturing him and having him die in prison; then leaving me sinking in the quicksand of my own nightmares.”

In 2005 the Guildford Four and the Maguire Seven finally got a personal apology from Tony Blair. Conlon told the then Prime Minister that the apology would only mean something if it came with more help for the victims.

“Blair turned to [parliamentary private secretary] David Hanson and said: ‘David, get on to this right away.’ Since then we’ve had no help. We followed up on Tony Blair’s promise and were basically told to get lost. He lied to us – the apology means nothing.”

“If there was a trauma centre, within a year, you could probably be living a normal productive life rather than being haunted by nightmares.”

But picking up the pieces of those who have already been wrongly convicted is cure, rather than prevention. Seeing the mistreatment of suspects and innocent people going to prison makes him feel that Britain has not moved on since the 1970s.

“Back then it was the Irish, now it’s Muslims. But nobody is safe, one of the Guildford Four was English. Everyone thinks this happens to other people, but it’s closer than you think.

“Who’s to say you’re not going to be next. Look at Sally Clarke, she was a solicitor and she drank herself to death after she was wrongly convicted of killing her two sons.”

What is striking about Conlon is that while he is angry, he is amazingly lacking in bitterness. He is clearly suffering greatly with the horrors of 15 years being treated “worse than a twisted child killer”. He wants his case files released; he wants proper post-sentence care for other victims of miscarriages – but he is not consumed by hate.

A common theme he returns to is how trauma counselling is given to people who have experienced what, to him, would seem fairly mild. But every time he mentions another group getting “the best counselling available”, he pauses, and slowly emphasises, “and so they should, and so they should. But what about us?”

Conlon is now “full of” psychiatric drugs, and his terrifying flashbacks continue. But through the pain caused by his years in prison he finds some purpose.

“I want my father’s death to count for something. It’s the hardest thing you can imagine to be put in prison for something you didn’t do. If I can do something to stop it happening to other people my life will have meant something.”

With many thanks to : The Telegraph.