Loyalist and republican paramilitary groups and the Army may have possessed the weapons most likely used in the Ballymurphy shootings, according to expert witnesses.
An inquest is looking into the shooting dead of 10 people in the area in west Belfast in August 1971.
A report was presented to the court on Wednesday from ballistics experts.
They are acting on behalf of the Coroner’s Service, the Ministry of Defence and the victims’ next of kin.
Ballymurphy shootings: Who were the victims?
Joan Connolly, Noel Phillips, Daniel Teggart, and Joseph Murphy were fatally shot in an area of waste ground near the Henry Taggart base on 9 August 1971, the day that internment without trial was introduced.
It is thought that almost all of the victims were struck by bullets from a rifle, although it is possible that Noel Phillips was not.
He was struck by 9mm bullets, which may have been fired by a military pistol or a submachine gun on semi or automatic fire.
Intelligence reliability challenged
Some of the rifle bullets could be clearly identified as having come from an SLR weapon (self-loading rifle), identical to those issued to British soldiers.
However, the experts quoted police intelligence that such SLR weapons could also have been in the possession of both republican and loyalist paramilitaries at the time.
A barrister for Joan Connolly’s family challenged the reliability of that intelligence.
The question arose of exactly when SLR weapons fell into paramilitary hands.
Turning to the injuries of the victims, the ballistics experts told the court:
Joan Connolly was shot three to four times and a fragment of an SLR round was found in her body
Noel Phillips was shot three to four times, at least twice by 9mm bullets, one of which was recovered from his body
Daniel Teggart was shot eight to 11 times but no bullets were recovered
Joseph Murphy was struck at least once in the thigh and a bullet fragment recovered after an exhumation of his body was of a rifle type, which could have included an SLR
‘No evidence of victims firing weapons’
The experts could not say whether the victims had been moving or static when shot or where the shooters had been located.
They agreed that all the shots could have come from the Henry Taggart Army base but could also have come from several other places, such as the waste ground, Vere Foster school, Springmartin and the Springfield Road.
The experts also agreed that none of the victims had been shot from a range closer than about a metre (3ft 4in).
Three of the victims – Joan Connolly, Noel Phillips and Joseph Murphy – could not have been shot by the kind of Mauser rifle that Witness X – the so-called Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) interlocutor – has claimed was being fired by the loyalist paramilitary group that day.
Witness X has not given oral evidence to the inquest.
The ballistics experts also agreed there was no evidence that any of the victims had been firing weapons, although it was noted that their clothes had not been scientifically examined.
Michael Mansfield QC, the barrister for the family of Noel Phillips, spoke at length with Ann Kiernan, a ballistics expert for the next of kin.
Miss Kiernan used a mannequin and tracking rods to demonstrate to the court the positions of Mr Phillips’ injuries.
She agreed with Mr Mansfield’s suggestion that it was possible that Mr Phillips could have been shot by a pistol held as close as two or more feet away, as he lay face down on the ground with an arm raised.
But she could not discount the possibility that the weapon, either a pistol or a sub machine gun, had been fired from the Henry Taggart base or elsewhere.
The court heard that two other victims, Father Hugh Mullan and Francis Quinn, could have been shot by SLRs.
They died on waste ground near Springfield Park on 9 August 1971.
The evidence came in another agreed note from ballistics experts.
Fr Mullan was shot at least twice by rifle bullets while kneeling or lying down and those bullets could have come from an SLR
Frank Quinn was shot in the head by an SLR bullet, which some experts think may have first passed through Fr Mullan, who was beside him
Frank Quinn could not have been shot by the UVF Mauser rifle described by Witness X
With many thanks to: BBCNI and Will Leitch for the original story